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G0FOZG0FOZ 19 May 2023 07:43
in discussion Community / Open Topic » RS(T)N

The RSN reporting system makes good sense however after having worked a couple of (rare) stations these days, one with chirp, one with a rough note then perhaps we send RSTN rather than RSN where needed?

Historically, suffixes might be added to report other attributes of the signal too. I might have sent 596C to indicate a slightly musical, vy strong signal but with chirp.

Suffix codes
A signal distorted by auroral propagation
C "chirp"
K key clicks
M distorted by multipath propagation
S distorted by scatter propagation
X stable frequency (crystal control)

Tempted to start sending RSN reports for the 98% of T9 stations I work and then RSTN for the ones with "character" - or should that be RSNT so I can add the suffix if needed with the appropriate report element :-)

73 de Simon G0FOZ

RS(T)N by G0FOZG0FOZ, 19 May 2023 07:43

Aside from the obvious of the lack of the basics of amateur radio in giving honest signal reports, the CQMM, like most other contests does not:

- Give restrictions on frequency ranges to be used so as to allow QTT for the weekend
- Give restrictions about QRP frequencies
- Give disqualifications for the above violations or logs that contain only 5NN reports

They could very easily have put in these basic requirements many years ago and the fact that they are sponsored by a "CW Club: CWJF" makes it all the more imperative NOT to participate at all in this contest if you are operating on other bands:

Just a single exchange of a report with a contest participant means that YOUR CALLSIGN goes into a database of those that participate in Contests and those figures are used to justify that Contests are popular - far beyond the reality. So please, DONT give a single point or participation.

Meanwhile we have updated our QTT page, what do you think? Let us know either by reply here, or privately via email via the Contact menu top right.

Dear 30CW Members,

We're looking at ways to revise and improve the qtt activity concept. Please post in the relevant QTT Activities forum, select Forums from the top menu bar.

For example, as the top 5kHz are under near-future threat especially on 12m and 17m, we'd like to encourage qtt activity on any and all CW bands.

The idea would be to focus on CQ or QTT in the top 5 kHz of all bands including 30m (and dropping the date=kHz idea?) and to increase chances of contacts, what more???

One way to do this could be to make use of the ALG Clock for those who are multi band capable and want to increase chances of success on any band in the TOP 5.

Another guideline might me to start at the TOP end of the TOP 5 (24915, 18095, 14070, 10130) and tune down, if no CQ, then call CQ at the first available frequency from the TOP end.

Another guideline might be to help reduce QRM from the usual 1kHz or 0.5 kHz separation (due to wanting to see a nice round number on the digital display), that if calling CQ you choose the first 0.x that is free from the top, where x is the digit in your callsign. I.E. G4OJW would call CQ or QTT on 24914.4. This also greatly helps QRP stations avoid zero-beat QRM when calling CQ.

What do you think of these ideas? Let us know if possible by posting in the Forum, otherwise via sending us an Email from the Contact menu top right.

73 & 77

You are most welcome!

Re: 30 CW is now ICWC Member by G4OJWG4OJW, 04 Apr 2023 12:36

Agree with this.

Even when the band is a little busy I find using an audio processor that spreads the audio across L+R headphones by frequency can help you "see" where a signal is :-)

True this just widened the filter right out on my KX3 and it seems to bring in many signals I feel I would have missed as I trawl through the band .

Good mini session this pm working MW0 (POTA), Donal in Cork and Simon F4GXT


200 watts
W9TOXW9TOX 30 Mar 2023 15:59
in discussion Community / Open Topic » 200 watts

New member here, Tom, W9TOX,#342. 30 is such a great band, something I like is the 200 watt limit here in the U.S. With the lower power limit and very few yagis for 10 megs I dont have to feel like the other stations are carrying all the load.
I'm curious, do you ops share my feelings, and what is legal limit in your country?

200 watts by W9TOXW9TOX, 30 Mar 2023 15:59

If you have joined 30CW recently, a big welcome to you. We have plans to improve including a newsletter and easier method of joining in future.

Please if you have not done so already, add something about yourself to your profile.

Also please check your membership number and callsign entries and make use of your membership number on air, e.g. 30CW123. You can also add your own page on 30CW under your callsign by using the top right "Create your page" box. This will be available at

If you want to see activity of 30CW members on the RBN you can do so and you can also set up alerts in CW on the computer if you want to know when someone starts calling CQ.

Of course, the most fun way is to get on the bands and tune around! 🙂

Finally, we welcome your feedback, comments and discussions in the 30 CW forums where you will find posts, discussions and ideas not only relating to 30m but also to CW operations in general.

If you have any problems you can always contact us by Email via the Contact menu item top right.

If you can help with 30CW site editing (it is a wiki, quite simple to use) please also contact us to volunteer your services along with any experience you have.

Thank you and welcome aboard!

Welcome New 30CW Members by G4OJWG4OJW, 30 Mar 2023 07:41

Here a list of recent changes and updates to 30CW. For more see the Announcements thread in the Forum.

  • Many pages were updated. Please see items on the "30m info" menu at the top of this page.
  • Latest forum posts no longer show on the front page, please see the Forum for all forum posts and discussions.
  • Latest Announcement threads now show on the front page, for all the posts in the threads please visit the Forum.
  • For new members who added profiles see the right side bar, for the full members list see here.
30CW Website Updates by G4OJWG4OJW, 30 Mar 2023 07:10
CW Forever
G4OJWG4OJW 28 Mar 2023 09:38
in discussion Community / Open Topic » CW Forever

CW Forever

You must have at times,
Thought into the past,
Where some things go out
While others last
What comes to my mind is
The old Morse code,
That has weathered the storms
From any abode.

To talk with ones fingers
Is surely an art,
Of any info you
Care to impart,
In most conditions
The signals get through,
While the same about phone
Is simply not true.

Those dits and dahs
Cut through the trash,
Of near by noise or
Lightning's crash.
To the sensitive ears
Of the hams receiver,
Who records this data
With ardent fever.

He knows he's doing
Something unique,
(in such poor conditions,
That's quite a feat)
To roger the message
That came off the air,
These brass pounders
Sure do have that flair

They say Morse ops
Are a dying breed,
But don't despair,
There's always that need,
That when conditions get rough
for the new automation,
Be rest assured,
There'll be need for your station.

CW is dying?
Believe it never,
This mode will be 'round
Forever and ever.
But one thing is sure,
What we really need,
Is to relay our knowledge
To the younger breed.

To carry the torch,
Long after we're gone,
To send Morse code
Through the air like a song.
When at last,
Silent keys pull that lever,
We can rest in peace,
It's CW forever.

Written by:

Jim Hatherley, WA1TBY (SK)

CW Forever by G4OJWG4OJW, 28 Mar 2023 09:38
G4OJWG4OJW 26 Mar 2023 10:09
in discussion Community / Open Topic » FT8 DXCC

Let's bring back a Real DXCC and real human achievements and heed the advice of 5T0JL.

More humour on the QRZ page of DJ4GX:

FT8 DXCC by G4OJWG4OJW, 26 Mar 2023 10:09
First, what is a plus for using a digital frequency readout, or having your eye on it when operating CW?

The main benefit is that you can with a high degree of accuracy determine your operating frequency. This is very helpful if you want to avoid going outside the legal amateur radio frequency band limits, provided it is accurately calibrated, which most modern rigs will be. If not, you can do so against a Frequency Time Signal on 10MHz, for example, but this is outside the scope of this article. You can research how to do that with great accuracy.

It can also greatly help when you have a sked or net that you are looking to join, or more importantly to start calling or act as a net control. However, even in such cases, you cannot own a frequency and you will want to vary it according to occupancy, noise, interference etc. And anyone can still find you by tuning around a little plus or minus above or below the agreed frequency.

I really cannot think of any other benefits, other than if you wanted to keep a listening watch on a certain frequency with a very narrow filter, but let us now address the many draw backs of the common place use of the digital frequency meter and the psychological and practical factors that cause problems and losses in CW communications in particular.

Psychological Factor

First let's look at the psychological factor: it just feels so much better to be on a nice looking frequency such as 10.125.000 rather than some random free frequency such as, for example, 10125.475 or 10117.328, right? The human mind likes order. I speak for myself here, but I think it applies to most people, and is the actual prime reason, a psychological one, why most CW operators are to be found on 10110.0, 10111.0, 10112.0 etc or even at best 10121.5, 10122.5 etc. If you look at the band occupancy on a SDR spectrum waterfall or even just tune around, you will see that this is the case. Very few stations are to be found "in between" these 1kHz, or at best, 0.5kHz "channels".

There can also be a practical reason for this with a few rigs, such as the QCX, where the tuning steps are in 1kHz or 0.5kHz usually although one could also set them to tune in 0.1 kHz steps or even 10Hz (0.01kHz) steps etc. This makes such rigs easier to tune across the band faster and even if you set them to 1kHz or 0.5kHz steps, even with the narrow 200Hz (0.2kHz) filter, you are not likely to miss much, due to the above mentioned facts of generaly frequency occupancy.

So, why does this, mostly psychological factor, cause problems for CW operation in general? After all, it makes us feel better, seeing a nice round 000 or 500 on the display, right? Well, I'll give a few reasons why this is a bad approach that we should aim to fight against, at a personal level, this is not a demand for everyone to follow this advice, this is a request for us to reconsider how we do things, and what the down sides of this wide spread practice are, and, how we as self-reflective CW Operators can profit from this situation, to our benefit, as well as others.


One problem with this approach, is that of QRM. While some might put forward the argument that having 0.5kHz spacing is a very good thing as it minimized interference keeping CW stations apart, this is absolute nonsense in practice and easily demonstrated. The keeping of 90% or more of CW stations to round 1kHz frequencies, and 95% to round 0.5kHz frequencies, is not LESS QRM, but in fact much more, and far worse QRM!

By the way, an example of commercial professional operations not choosing RTTY or CW frequencies to be exact 1 or 0.5 kHz is DDK9 both its centre frequency 10100.8KHz and its actual two tone frequencies 10100.575 and 10101.025 kHz aren't anywhere near an exact 0.5 kHz, are they? And with good reasoning: they wanted their frequency to be free of interference as much as possible over several decades, with receivers glued to this frequency around European waters, and they have achieved this.

QRM is usually not deliberate, and it is usually caused by the nature of HF communications "dead zones" or "skip zones" between hops off the ionosphere and back to earth, as well as paths being open in one or more directions but not others. Therefore, even the best intentioned and most considerate radio amateur, who spends a minute or two quietly listening to the frequency intently, volume up high, narrow filter switched in and out, notch filters off, and moving the BFO up and down a little, before finally timidly sending a short ? and if still nothing heard, a longer QRL? and even a second and third QRL? cannot prevent the situation where his signal is actually heard by one station in an existing QSO, but, he cannot hear that station, or even both.

Not to mention the fact that very few of us are as considerate and meticulous as the above described exemplary CW operator full of patience and virtue! In fact, there exist many at the other end of the extreme, prone to a quick QRL? with the narrow filter on or off, and the antenna wherever it is, and perhaps even the RF gain turned down to avoid noise, or even a squelch turned up so that only nice strong signals delight his ears.

The result of QRM to CW, no matter how it manifested itself via the careful or careless operator, is only severe when the QRM is sitting on the exact same frequency or let's say within 50 Hz or so of the frequency, depending on its signal strength. 50Hz is plenty to separate two CW QSO in the brain if they are of similar signal strength, though it could be annoying at high volume, but 100Hz is absolutely plenty, and 200Hz is complete overkill for separating CW signals. For those who suffer from an inability to separate in the brain or ear there is always the notch filter and narrow filter that can come to the rescue, the latter in far too much widespread overuse, perhaps the subject for another post, on the downsides of over use of narrow CW filters (200, 500Hz are narrow).

You can see where I am going with this. The fact that everyone is using a round kHz or at best a round half kHz means that QRM is actually on average far worse and far more destructive to QSOs when it appears. I'm old enough to remember the delight of QRH (drifting) and QRI (chirp or buzzing) as well as dozens of stations all calling within a few kHz, what a delight! It also meant that because no one had a T9X (pure tone so common and boring these days, please, someone invent a QCX with a button to turn on chirp, if not drift, or a little modulation of the CW signal) it also meant that you could pick out each signal with its unique sound even right on the same frequency. But these days, you cannot…

This has led to stupid and inconsiderate, nay, reckless and psychopathic behaviours of incapable DXpedition operators, never mind that they're also the president of RSGB, IARU Region 2 or IOTA, the title means nothing, as 5T0JL pointed out, these are incapable LID operators, whereby instead of using some skill they solve the problem by sending "UP" and letting the fools spread out 30kHz wide, again mostly using round 1kHz frequencies, thus not solving the problem, and not listening on their frequency, and causing yet more QRM to everyone. Instead of using the wide/narrow/flexible filter of their brain, they try to use narrow filters of modern rigs that compound the problem with pure CW right on frequency!

So, what can the smart CW operator do? And what can be a good compromise to still satisfy the psychological factor without putting on a blind fold, or a masking tape across the digital display?

Either you can move the dial without looking and use your ears only, and don't correct the random frequency when you do look again, or, you can opt to use a nice ending 0 on a 10Hz readout, or at most 01, or .105 on a 100Hz readout, thus compromising with some still "need for order and control" in the mind, but mitigating the problem. So, here a few examples of such operation and its benefits:

1. Calling CQ. Tune until you find a nice clear space, without looking at the dial. If you look and it bothers you, move it to the nearest 10Hz or 50Hz or 25Hz. Have fun calling CQ. When you listen for replies, be ready to use your BFO (RIT) to listen up and down, but do not move your VFO. Chances are someone will reply off frequency, if they do, they are listening to your frequency, do not move it. There is even a benefit when both stations are not exactly on the same frequency: in the event of QRM it will likely affect one station but not both, thus making it more possible to find a solution such as QSY. In the old days, this was done easily: just put the key down or VVV while also turning the VFO so the other station followed you, when QRM came up, this was common.

2. Looking for club members, say, FISTS on 10118. Tune up to 10118.234 or 10117.987 or whatever, if it makes you feel better, 10118.1. Call there. These aren't fixed frequencies anyway, they are "Centers of Activity" — same for QRP on 10126, 10116 or 10106, unless it is a Xtal.

3. Answering stations. Well, it is good to answer right on the frequency of course. But lets say you answer a typical CQ on a round kHz. Go 50 Hz off frequency at least, give the other OP a little practice to remember where his RIT (BFO) knob is, or, call 150Hz off frequency, to aid operators to remember not to keep the 200 Hz or 40Hz filter on all the time. Of course, you may not be heard, or they may follow you, be ready for both. But calling a little off frequency will set you up better in the likely event of ZERO-BEAT QRM appearing later. Or, feign some drift, call back on frequency and drift your VFO off 87 or 99 Hz as you go, or as you please. OK I'm mostly joking here, but you get my DRIFT !

Another solution might be to simply cover the digits below the kHz or below the first hundred Hz on the display, but this is an extreme measure, it might make the rig look a bit ugly.

Anyway, know that a pure CW tone can benefit the use of narrow filters and rock solid RX these days, but, a chirp, a drift, and a non-adherence to the nonsense of CW operating on full or half kHz "channels", are all important ingredients for a more enjoyable QRM-free CW life, and, also a safeguard against future regulations appearing that mandate CW operations only on fixed channels spaced 0.5kHz apart, and only decodable 100% by automated means, and with certain speed limits and keying methods restricted. And about this, I am not joking.


Summary: EFHW can be useful in QRP temporary uses in the field, but is generally to be avoided in fixed home set ups with other types of antennas to be favored (dipoles, ground planes, verticals, quads, etc).

First, a little history about the "Wireless Institute of Australia" (WIA) member society of IARU.

In the old days there was an Advanced license class, like most other places, only accessible by also passing a decent Morse Code test. This was very resented by the Second Class amateurs in VK who has "Zoo" call suffixes, 3 letters starting with Z.

The "Z calls" were restricted to VHF, without any CW they could not go anywhere on HF at all.

There was also a novice class able to use, for example, 15m CW. They had nice segments and actively practiced CW and only had a minimal CW test to pass.

For the Z calls, even basic CW was too much of an effort, and they flatly refused. This caused a great deal of resentment among them: the ONLY difference between the Advanced Classes who could use all of HF and themselves, was a little Morse test.

A long story short, as shared by old timers who were present at the meeting, the Zoo calls made a coup, like in Animal Farm, and invited the authorities along. During this coup they seized control of WIA via a conspiracy forming a majority of votes, and thus the license classes changed.

The lowly "Zoo calls" now granted themselves Advances Class licenses, joining the ranks of the existing A Class operators, and giving themselves also the right to seize past 2 letter call signs of historic life-long CW operators. They created a new second class, upgrading the existing Novices to it, to keep them happy, but since they knew some CW they only gave them some amateur bands but not, for example 30m and other WARC bands. Such call signs begin with the letter H, P or M or something like this, no very clear system. And they created a new THIRD and lowly class onto which they could project their hatred of having suffered all those years as "Zoo calls": they created the "F*** calls" — 4 letters beginning with F and allowed anyone to get one without any real test.

Another aside, before coming to the topic of 30m and the "Zoo exceptionalism" for VK: a quick mention, the WIA started using musical jingles in its HF broadcasts after the coup, including on DX bands such as 20m and 30m in SSB, and also with a segment where people far away suddenly hear the words "HELP" from "HELPLINE" emerging out of the noise floor, in CW… showing that when the animals take over the farm you can expect Orwellian results! An illegal call for HELP on HF!

Now to 30m: of course, the Zoo calls, who now became "A Class" after the coup, and not all of these chaps are bad fellows by far, but there is a strong group among them who are, of course, could not use the prime real estate on HF, the 30m band. Why? Because SSB as a wide band mode cannot be used on 30m aside from during daylight hours in Sub-Saharan Africa. But that would not stop the Z-calls: they assigned themselves the right to use SSB on 30m and got their pals in the "Australian Clowns and Media Authority" to agree.

Then, VK5EEE arose like a phoenix out of the ashes and organized CW operators on a level never before seen, and even joined WIA to write a CW Column "CW Today" and many CW activities were organized across the cuntry. A campaign of logic was waged to persuade the WIA to stop the SSB QRM on 30m at least to neighbouring countries on which they compromised and reduced their exceptionalism to "daytime only" and above 10125 kHz. However, after hounding VK5EEE off the air, in more ways than one, and thus breaking the resolve of dozens of active CW operators who fell back under the control and prohibitions of the XYLs, a group that split off from WIA and formed "RASA" worked to yet another level of farce: now that Digital modes are more popular in VK, the SSB can again move down into the narrow band CW segment.

And nary a word of opposition.

Of course, the actual solution is to follow the international recommendations and licensing conditions of civilized advanced cultures and civilizations, where SSB as a wide mode is simply not allowed on 30m. But no, the lack of CW activity in VK on 30m, is enough reason to have SSB again at and also allowed below 10120 kHz.

Let this be a warning to those CW operators who love 30m around the world: this is what will happen if you let up on your activities! Yes, QO100 is nice, and Vband, CWcom and other things that help those who are stuck without a QRP and a short wire, or even for training and QSO, why not, it's all good for CW and our health, but, please don't forget to use 30m whenever you can!

If the option is there to set up a sked on 30, or a training session, or to call CQ or tune around, give it a try, it is a special band among CW operators and no matter your proficiency or preferred sending key or style, you'll be more than welcome!

77 de Lou, VK5EEE

This time CY0S but it is a frequent fad of incapable "DX pedo" Ops wiping out others QSOs + QRP & Popular Club CoA's without a care in the world, except their own ego and incapability masked as "DX".

All the stations calling them are violating the regulations by not listening on their TX frequencies, and the DX is incapable of using any filter in their brain. Time to again hear the advice of experienced DXer 5T0JL (30CW0) for whom these DXPedos are no match!

Let's not make fun at the expense of many others, see the advice how to operate a pileup without the unnecessary non-defined "UP" and resulting pollution and disruption of others enjoyment of CW.

Which members of 30CW would like to volunteer to help occasionally?

A good command of web literacy, e.g. wiki editing, attention to detail, accuracy, are required.

What is involved, is checking from time to time for new Membership applications. If an application contains the CALLSIGN in the wikidot account, it can be approved if not, the applicant contacted and advised to change his Wikidot Settings Screen Name to his CALLSIGN.

If rejected, the email address they used to apply, cannot be used again, so rejection should only happen after some weeks of waiting.

Applicants that are approved, and they MUST be processed in the order in which they applied and were approved, are givin the next sequential 30CW number and nr is updated, along with cs to also include entries in any other currently valid or formerly famous callsigns of theirs.

Finally, from time to time, the Membership list in Admin area needs checking for those that have put a picture on their profiles, and those that have, are then upgraded to "Moderator" so that their callsign and profile will show up automatically on the right hand side bar.

Also, those that have added pages (as seen in Recent Activity log in admin area), need the Title of their page to be edited to CALLSIGN (upper case) followed by (30CWnnn) where nnn is their membership number, then the nav:side page will need editing to include their page in the list of call pages that appear at the top of the right hand side bar.

It's a fair amount of work, ideally at least once a week. But having others able to do it would lessen the reliance on a single "key man" and point of failure.

All 30CW wiki edits are reversible and there is a history, so learning on the job from those who think they could give it a try, is acceptable.

Listening around I so often hear stations missing answers to their CQ calls as they don't take time to do careful listening, or are using narrow filter and a station replies off frequency outside of the narrow pass band. We have been given the best filters in our head, our ears and our brain. Let's use them! It's not to say that filters cannot be used when really needed, but by default, start out with a wide filter. It's also not a bad thing when someone calls a little off-frequency, so long as they aren't causing QRM, as any QRM is not likely to zero beat with both stations… and so if QRM develops one station can ask the other to QSY up or down to continue. Plus, is not the sound of static nicer than the sound of a narrow filter? Yes, local noise is a good reason, and also strong QRM near the frequency, but I think often OPs use narrow filters out of habit and miss out a lot?

One of the joys of CW that some operators get to experience after much practice, often from a very young age, is QRQ or "high speed telegraphy". This allows for long conversations with speeds measured in "PARIS" words per minute (WPM) or characters per minute (CPM), or, in the case of numbers, actual WPM or CPM.

Such speeds, and I mean without the use of a keyboard and fast typing, which can also be used, are achieved using electronic keyers with the fast reflex manipulation of a "paddle" key: however, a single lever is best used, or, at least keying without "iambic". This is something it took me decades to realize, as I did not socialize in real life with other QRQ operators: using an iambic key requires a greater reflex due to more critical shorter timing on iambic characters such as "C" and "Q" and sets the realistic maximum speed achievable around 50WPM, whereas one could more easily reach 60WPM and beyond with a single lever key.

Let's hear it from QRQ operators! What type of key do you use? What techniques or methods or applications did you use to build up your receiving and sending speed? Do you still use abbreviations such as "U", "URS", "ES" in QRQ or you tend to spell out "you, yours, and" etc?

For me, at the age of 60, and with only some years here and there in my life, say 1975-1999, and then a long break of over 15 years, I did not use any special keys or techniques, only on air QSO, and reached receive speeds for English or German plain text of maybe 65 WPM and sending of 45 WPM maybe 50 WPM. I'd now like to see if I can improve on that, any advice?

I know that there are several QRQ even "QRQQ" operators who are members of 30CW and who also are very happy to slow down to QRS and even use a variety of keys: single leaver, paddle, cootie side swiper and bugs, as do I so it would be great to hear your advice to those wanting to improve speed beyond 25 WPM, or even improve upon their existing QRQ speeds.

Here a great video of QRQ CW with great keys made by Alberto Frattini I1QOD - by ear I'm guessing final speeds around 60 WPM?

QRQ - High Speed CW by G4OJWG4OJW, 20 Mar 2023 09:53

I could not resist to share this. Yes, it is not about 30m, far very far from it, but it is about CW. Our 30m band is at around 10 MHz. This CW that I heard, via a Web SDR mind you, was at near 10 GHz. That is microwaves. And, all the way from Hungary with a solid no QRM no QRN no QSB RTS 479. So what is this? Well it is not a new amateur band, but it is now used for a geo-stationary satellite QO-100 put up by Qatar and AMSAT-DL.

So, I'd thought I'd have a quick listen as I read on this informative article here by G8PQH that he did not hear much CW activity - the bottom 40 kHz is reserved for CW, in fact 35kHz, because the first 5 kHz is to be kept clear as this is where the CW beacon transmits non-stop: "HI DE QO100 QRA DK0SB" with a long dahhh of several seconds in between repeats. The "HI" is probably a recognition of the first Sputnik which transmitted "HI" in CW constantly on 20MHz and 40MHz, so I read.

Well, what was the CW I heard on 10489520.27 kHz? It was a long CQ call from HA8WM. There were no replies, but it would be nice if he knew someone was listening to him. Although to listen directly you need a satellite dish and some equipment, which apparently can be modified from easily available WIFI and satellite TV equipment .

Well it is good to see CW alive and well even in the latest satellite communications technology.

CW on 10489520.27 kHz - what?! by G4OJWG4OJW, 20 Mar 2023 08:00
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